Drilling wells for geological surveys
Geological surveys are the most important and necessary stage of preparation for the construction of any complexity. With their help, the geological conditions of the development site are analyzed, without which no object is built.
Get them by drilling in the area of the proposed development. Samples are taken from the soil and tested in special laboratories. As a result of the analysis, the characteristics of the soil, the depth of groundwater, the level of stability of the soil and the degree of its freezing are determined. As a rule, such wells are made in several places: at least 3-4 for medium-sized objects, and 4-6 for massive structures with heavy loads.
The depth and characteristics of wells vary depending on the purpose of the survey and the geological conditions of the development site. Also, wells differ in their characteristics and depth. Most often, their depth is limited to 10-15 meters, but in some cases more impressive parameters are required, and wells reach 100 meters.
Well drilling methods
One of the most common methods of drilling wells for geological surveys is kolonkovy. This is a universal and long-used method that has virtually no effect on the natural state of the soil. Core drilling can be used for wells of considerable depth, however, due to the fact that downhole tools of small diameter are used for drilling, the wells are quite narrow.
Another popular method of drilling - auger. This is a simple and fast way to make a well with a depth of up to 80 meters in soils of low hardness, such as sand or black soil. Drilling by this method is the immersion of the drill in the ground, and the subsequent movement of rock along the screw surface of the screws up to the surface of the earth.
One of the most optimal in terms of simplicity and performance is the shock-cable drilling method. This method allows you to make wells without the use of heavy special equipment. The main tool is the so-called driving glass, which is a steel cylinder with a cutting edge at the bottom. At the opposite end of the glass is the anvil, on which the barbell is struck. Despite a number of advantages, this method also has disadvantages. Such drilling, for example, cannot be used in rocks.
The most productive method is vibration drilling. This method involves the use of mechanical vibrations, which are created by a vibrating machine and destroy the ground. Such drilling has high rates that allows to make reliable geological documentation of a well.
After completion of drilling operations, all ground changes should be eliminated. The wells are filled with cement mortar, and the extracted soil is poured back. This prevents undesirable environmental and geological consequences.