Geodetic control in construction
Reliability and safety of operation are the necessary requirements for any object under construction. In the face of increasingly complex construction technologies, thorough geodetic control is becoming increasingly important. High-quality erection of building structures, accuracy of installation of prefabricated elements are extremely important for investors, contractors and customers.
The main task of geodetic control at any stage of the construction of the object is to check the correctness of the execution of each assembly cycle and compliance with established tolerances. Experts compare the position of the structural parts of the object and engineering networks with the parameters specified in the project documentation.
Geodetic control is a mandatory procedure provided for by the regulations of production quality control. This process is a system of measurement and design work, which is used to determine the accuracy of compliance with all geometric parameters during the construction of the object. The main task of these events is to control the compliance of building structures and their elements with the data established in the project documentation.
Geodesic control exposed a variety of objects: buildings, foundations, earthworks, utilities and others. Thus, almost the entire list of construction and installation works is subject to control, which ensures the proper quality of their execution.
The main type of work carried out within the framework of geodetic control - control and executive survey. To achieve maximum accuracy, this procedure is carried out in stages, separately for each structural element or floor. Using special geodetic instruments (theodolites, digital or optical levelsa) experts determine the correct installation of prefabricated structures and the construction of the monolith. The last point is especially important, since the defects of a monolithic element are difficult and costly to fix, and often impossible at all.
Geodesic control is carried out in a number of areas.
- First of all, the accuracy of the location of earth objects is checked. Their form is measured and documented.
- Then measurements of the foundation reinforcement are carried out, the accuracy of the location of all structural elements is checked.
- Further analysis of the status of panels and various building blocks of buildings. Experts check the correctness of their installation and compliance with the established parameters.
The main measures for geodetic control
- Work on the creation of a geodetic center base under construction.
- The marking of the site during construction and the removal of the axes of the building in nature;
- Verification of the accuracy of construction and installation works and control of compliance with the position of the structural elements of the structure at each stage of construction.
- Investigation of the foundations bearing structural parts of the structure for deformations.
- The executive survey of the planned-high-altitude arrangement of the structural parts, which are finally fixed after installation, as well as the study of the actual location of the underground communications.
Within the framework of these events, experts use executive surveys of the high-rise and planned position of the object. It is also carried out separately for each new structural element of the object or the erected floor. The work uses high-tech devices and modern software.
Stages of geodetic control in construction
The first stage of control is a topographical survey of the construction site. With the help of geo-foundations, the location of already existing communications is located. Also, an external marking scheme or static reference points, such as points of already existing objects, are used for this purpose. All geodetic measurements performed at this stage require high accuracy. However, the margin of error is a component of the deviations present in the project documentation 0,2.
Surveying underground structures is performed before they are covered with soil. Upon completion of all control measures of this stage, reporting documentation is drawn up, including an executive geodetic scheme.
The second stage of geodetic control is the verification of the correctness of the construction of the above-ground part of the object, the walls and the horizontal position of the floors. All values must fully comply with the project documentation.
Types of geodetic control
Geodesic control is distinguished by the method of measuring work and is divided into two types - continuous and local. Continuous monitoring implies the constant presence of specialists at the facility. They measure and analyze all the necessary parameters. This type of control is used in the construction of large objects that imply large-scale construction and installation work.
Local geodetic control is the control of the parameters of individual objects in the building area. This option is suitable for small volumes of construction and installation works and allows you to save without compromising the quality of control.
The results of control measures are made in the prescribed manner.
All data obtained as a result of geodetic quality control of construction are recorded in the register of work. According to their results, an executive scheme of the object is drawn up, and for underground utilities - drawings.
Any deviations recorded as a result of geodetic control should be reflected in the working drawings. All errors are carefully analyzed, and then measures are taken to eliminate defects. Properly compiled executive documentation can prevent or eliminate a number of violations that inevitably arise during construction work.
Also, all data obtained as a result of control measures are entered in the inspection report of the object. The act is signed by technical supervision and authorized persons construction organization.
Upon completion of construction, the developer must conduct a control geodetic survey to monitor the compliance of the constructed object and engineering networks with their display on the drawings submitted by the contractor. Any deviations in the location of buildings or communications must be made in the executive master plan.
Any large object is a complex technical system, the safety and reliability of which is ensured only by careful monitoring. Geodetic control is an integral and extremely important part of the system of general technical control over the operation of the structures of buildings and structures for various purposes.
Geodetic control is a mandatory procedure established by the regulations of production quality control. Its main task is the timely detection of irregularities and defects in the construction process. Correct and competent performance of geodetic center works and qualitative measurements are the guarantee of reliable construction of a new construction object. Therefore, geodetic control over the construction should be trusted only to qualified specialists with sufficient experience, good reputation and possessing the necessary modern equipment. The services of a proven expert organization carrying out geodetic maintenance of construction will ensure the correct location of structures, their compliance with project documentation, and most importantly, the reliability and safety of operation of the facility.