BIM-technologies in construction
The modern construction industry is hard to imagine without digital modeling. Manual drawings and floor plans are gradually becoming a thing of the past, giving way to advanced computer technology. Computer-aided design systems are introduced by every large company that monitors progress and strives to keep up to date. Today, the largest computer-aided design system is BIM.
What is BIM technology?
First of all, BIM technology is a holistic approach to the design of an object. As a result, a single building information model is created, which contains the entire necessary list of information from the results engineering surveys to architectural and economic data. Throughout the world, with the help of BIM-technologies, an integrated approach to the construction of structures for various purposes is being implemented.
Modern computer-aided design systems create a full three-dimensional model of an object with all the relevant characteristics and parameters. The output is not just an 3D model, but an exhaustive database in which all the elements are connected. Due to this interdependence, each component lends itself to control and analysis, and specialists can replenish or delete any information at any time. A change in one parameter will entail a change in all structures of the information model.
It should be understood that BIM technology is not just 3D visualization. The information model of the object is a complex and multifunctional tool for work and a complete database of the current project. It contains comprehensive information on any components and for each stage of the building's life cycle.
Each participant in the design process can make changes to the project, and these changes will automatically be reflected in all related elements. Moreover, the program will recount the estimate taking into account the adjustments made. Specialists have access to the information contained in the database. Geometric parameters, dimensions, various technical specifications - all these data are contained in the BIM model and can be extracted at any time.
How computer-aided design systems have evolved
BIM (Building Information Modeling) or building information modeling is a technology for joint modeling of objects, which includes the process of creating, modifying and subsequently operating a digital copy of a structure. These technologies are applied at all stages of building construction. Design, construction, operation - each stage is reflected in the digital model of the object. A feature of BIM technology is that all specialists work in a single information field, which eliminates defects and inaccuracies. The model of the object includes all the necessary documentation and estimates.
Work with the help of BIM-technologies implies coordinated interaction of specialists of all areas, which significantly reduces the possibility of financial risks. The first digital technologies in design appeared a long time ago, almost simultaneously with the emergence of the computer era. Already in the 60 of the XX century, the first software for architects and designers began to appear, and around the same time, CAD - a computer-aided design system appeared.
Further development of computer technology led to the creation of AutoCAD at 1982, a revolutionary product in the field of computer-aided design systems. By the end of the 20th century, design almost completely switched to three-dimensional models, and it was this period that laid the foundation for the emergence and development of modern BIM-technologies.
Benefits of application BIM-technologies
Information modeling today is a radically new approach to creating projects and their implementation. Design using BIM-technologies implies a large complex of works related to the entire life cycle of the facility. It includes design, construction, operation, reconstruction, as well as demolition of the building. Using BIM-technologies, specialists are able to control the design process at all stages, compare and analyze several options for 3D-models, calculate the timing and budget of the construction. This approach significantly reduces the financial costs of project development. The use of BIM-technologies, according to some estimates, can reduce the construction cost by 20 or more percent, and by almost 40% reduce the number of errors and errors in the design process.
The main advantage of BIM-technologies is the ability to simultaneously work on a project for each specialist. In other words, information modeling is a general process in which experts of various fields participate: engineers, designers, architects, planners, developers and others. Each of them has not only access to the project database and any information about it, but also the ability to change or supplement this database at any stage of the object’s life cycle.
Other equally important advantages of VIM-technologies in construction include:
- visual visualization. With its help, even investors or customers far from the topic can evaluate the object at each stage, make corrections or express wishes;
- reduction in the number of errors. Due to the fact that digital modeling is a collective process, all manipulations with the project are immediately displayed on the 3D model of the building. This allows you to not only effectively track errors that occur and quickly eliminate them, but also significantly reduce construction costs as a whole;
- high quality construction. Digital technologies mean increased accuracy of calculations and a decrease in the human factor. Automated control in a timely manner reveals inaccuracies and errors in the project.
Each progressive organization implements BIM technology in its work. The practical use of information models enhances the reputation and image of the company, opens up access to international markets and attracts profitable and promising partners.
Organizations that use BIM technologies at the design stage have the opportunity to reduce the risk of errors during construction to a minimum. This efficiency is achieved due to the synchronous operation of a large number of specialists. Architects, engineers, ecologists, economists and investors at any time can make adjustments to the project. This greatly simplifies the process of interaction between the customer and the builder.
In addition, BIM technologies optimize a number of procedures. For example, analyze the transport situation and create a suitable transport network. Also, relying on the information model data, it is possible to estimate the labor costs for construction and the required amount of materials and equipment. As for one of the most important issues that concern investors, the budget of each stage of construction can be calculated in advance and constantly optimized in real time. In addition, this integrated approach makes it possible to work from a distance. Each specialist gets the opportunity to work on a project in their field and to freely interact with related departments, even if they are in another city.
After the construction is completed, digital technologies continue to accompany him, but already at the operation stage. Using BIM-technologies, specialists can control the consumption of electricity or heat, conduct energy audit, audit of technical systems and even plan the budget for the operation of the facility.
Such optimization fully meets the modern rhythm of life, and that is why more and more European, Western and Asian companies widely use BIM-technologies. A tangible increase in productivity, speed and technological design - these are the main results of the implementation of digital technologies. Foreign studies provide impressive results on the effectiveness of applying BIM technologies: time spent on costing is reduced by 80%, cost savings due to the timely detection of errors is about 10%, and the accuracy of financial calculations has increased by 3%.
In Russia, more and more organizations are mastering and introducing BIM technologies into their work. Modern projects require the efficient processing of large amounts of information; therefore, information modeling is gradually replacing conventional methods. Requirements for the quality of construction, the need to optimize costs and a number of other prerequisites, may lead to the fact that in our country BIM-technologies will become an approved standard for any type of construction.