Laboratory quality control of construction
Quality control of building materials is necessary both in the production process and directly during construction. This procedure is an integral part of modern construction industry. Being inextricably linked with the growth of construction automation, the importance of laboratory control is constantly increasing.
Monitoring the construction materials used at the initial stage, as well as the parameters of the technological processes themselves, becomes a priority. That is why the percentage of costs of the total construction budget for laboratory control becomes more significant. However, these costs are fully justified.
A bit of history
For hundreds of years, all calculations in the design and construction were based only on the experience accumulated by builders. Due to this, the consumption of materials for the manufacture of building structures increased significantly. But even this did not ensure their reliability and durability. Moreover, this approach was not reliable and often led to tragic consequences.
The scientific revolution and the construction boom of the XNUMXth century necessitated radically new solutions. The intensive construction of bridges, highways and railways, which began in the middle of the XNUMXth century, required new building materials, a systematic approach to the analysis of their mechanical characteristics and the development of rules for their use. Such tests were carried out according to the methods compiled by various specialists, however, they did not have a clear system and a unified approach.
The first laboratories to control the quality of building materials appeared in the second half of the 1853th century. Pioneers in this important matter were professors F.I.Sulim and P.I.Sobko. By the end of XNUMX, a revolutionary new laboratory for chemical and mechanical research of building materials was completely built and equipped with machines and devices.
The end of the nineteenth century was marked by the creation of a laboratory led by Professor N.A. Beleubsky. He developed some test methods that have become classical and applicable to this day, for example, determining the brand of binders and determining frost resistance.
In modern laboratories for quality control of building materials, tests are carried out for the most diverse in structure, purpose and composition of building components. For this, laboratories are supplied with high-tech equipment, precision instruments and devices. Thanks to this, such laboratories provide control of the most varied characteristics of modern building materials in various operating conditions.
Stages of laboratory building control
As already mentioned, laboratory control is primarily aimed at improving the reliability and durability of materials, products and structures in buildings and structures, as well as ensuring the safety of facilities. In general, this is a set of works and tests, implying an analysis of the quality of materials, as well as quality control of the execution of construction and installation works.
Activities of such laboratories regulated by applicable laws in the field of construction, state standards, building codes and specifications, technical conditions for the manufacture, acceptance and testing methods of building materials, products and structures.
Quality control of construction is necessary in order to timely detect inconsistency of construction products with the stated requirements, to identify violations of the process and deviations from standards. In addition, the results of laboratory tests are taken into account when executing executive documentation and when submitting work at different stages of construction.
The objects of laboratory analysis are:
- quality of materials used;
- quality of work;
- compliance with technological regimes;
- quality of products.
To ensure each of these points, laboratory control is carried out in several stages.
At this stage, the quantity and quality of incoming building materials and structures, as well as their compliance with the standards contained in the design and estimate documentation, are checked. Here, experts regulate the storage and transportation of materials. Incoming control is necessary for all used materials and components of technical equipment.
At the stage of input control, a journal is kept - a special document in which all procedures for acceptance of materials arriving at the construction site are recorded. The journal is constantly maintained and must comply with established standards.
This stage of laboratory control is necessary to verify compliance with regulatory requirements established for various technological operations. Its task is to detect and eliminate violations in the manufacturing process of building materials. Specialists evaluate the parameters of finished materials and structural elements, and also observe the installation operations in the process of their implementation.
The stage is dedicated to quality control of finished materials and is carried out by experts in specially equipped laboratories by testing materials, products or building structures. Testing is carried out for each product or design. If you want to evaluate the quality of piece components, such as sand or brick, test samples are taken from each batch of materials. Their volumes and sizes of samples, as well as the rules for their selection are established by the standards for each individual type of building material.
It should be noted that the larger the volume of selected material from the party, the more reliable the result. But, on the other hand, an increase in the sample size causes an increase in financial and time costs. That is why the standards for materials and products indicate scientifically sound sample volumes that are taken from a batch of material.
Equipment for construction control laboratories
To perform each of the listed procedures, specialized high-precision equipment is required. For example, the most common are soil and material sampling devices. Testing devices and machines are used to evaluate building materials in the laboratory. They allow you to find out how materials will react to various external influences, as well as how they will behave in different climatic conditions. The so-called testing devices include presses, tensile, universal machines, equipment for testing springs.
With the help of tensile testing machines, metals and plastic are tested for compression, bending, tension or fatigue. In addition, universal machines are used, with much wider testing capabilities.
Laboratory control is important
A study of the quality of building materials is carried out both at construction sites and directly in the laboratory itself. Experts evaluate the correct storage of building materials. In addition to a comprehensive analysis of products, each stage of laboratory control is recorded in special journals. They also contain expert guidance.
Construction control is the most important component of the industry. Only high-quality and timely control is able to ensure the safety and durability of the structure under construction. Thanks to modern laboratories for building control, the builder can be sure that the object will not pose a threat to human life and health, as well as to the environment.
Not every builder has an accredited construction lab. In such cases, you should contact specialized organizations. In view of the undeniable importance of laboratory building control, trust only trusted organizations with a good reputation. Such performers have qualified staff and a laboratory that meets all modern requirements.